Evidence Explained

Contents: An Overview

  • Do you understand all the many different record types that you find?
  • Do you understand how the differences in these records impact your research?
  • Do you know the degree of reliability you can place in one record vis à vis another of somewhat similar type?
  • Do you wonder what other records might exist for a particular event?
  • Do you know why published sources are cited differently from unpublished materials—and how those citation differences can help or hamper your ability to locate a source?
  • Do you understand the differences in citing different forms of the same record—say, originals versus microfilm versus digital images—and why these differences matter?
  • Are you puzzled by the organization schemes used by different archives?
  • Are you confused by differences in U.S. and international records?

Evidence Explained will guide you through all these issues—and many more. Its fourteen chapters cover virtually every type of material used by researchers in the social sciences, and each of them in various media versions.

Evidence Explained emphasizes resources not covered by standard citation guides. Its closing chapters also cover published resources (the conventional fare of classic citation guides such as APA, Chicago, MLA, and Turabian) and EE follows familiar conventions in doing so. However, EE’s chapters also guide you in capturing all the additional data that can significantly affect the reliability you place in these derivative materials.

FOUNDATION CHAPTERS

The foundation chapters discuss the fundamentals of evidence analysis and citation.

Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Evidence Analysis

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Basic Issues
1.1    Analysis & mindset            
1.2    Completeness of research
1.3    Conclusions: hypothesis, theory & proof
1.4    Fact vs. assertion or claim
1.5    Family-history standards
1.6    Levels of confidence
1.7    Objectivity
1.8    Presentism
1.9    Quantity vs. quality
1.10    Technical knowledge
1.11    Truth                

Classes of Evidence
1.12    Generic labels            
1.13    Legal terminology
1.14    Process map for evidence analysis
1.15    Proof arguments

Problematic Concepts
1.16    Definitive sources
1.17    Direct Sources
1.18    Final conclusions
1.19    Indirect sources
1.20    The name’s the same rule
1.21    Three sources rule

Processed Records (Formats)
1.22    Abstracts vs. extracts
1.23    Databases & indexes
1.24    Duplicate copies
1.25    Duplicate originals (counterparts)            
1.26    Image copies
1.27    Record copies (aka clerk’s copies)
1.28    Transcriptions vs. translations    
1.29    Transcriptions, edited

Textual Criticism
1.30    Authenticty & credibility
1.31    Certification & certificates
1.32    Content    
1.33    Creator’s veracity & skill
1.34    Informant’s purpose & reliability
1.35    Language characteristics
1.36    Material characteristics
1.37    Penmanship
1.38    Record’s custodial history
1.39    Record’s degree of processing
1.40    Record’s timeliness
1.41    Source description

Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Citation

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2.1    Citation as art vs. science
2.2    Citation style choices
2.3    Citations, definition & purpose
2.4    Citations, types of
2.5    Common-knowledge rule
2.6    Copyrights, plagiarism & fair use
2.7    Discursive notes & overlong citations
2.8    Privacy
2.9    Selectivity & thoroughness
2.10    Symbols & terms

Common Practices for Citing
2.11    Derivatives & imaged sources
2.12    Indexes & finding aids
2.13    National Archives materials
2.14    Page numbers, etc.
2.15    Personal knowledge
2.16    Personal names
2.17    Personal titles, credentials & degrees
2.18    Published vs. unpublished materials
2.19    Repositories
2.20    Several sources for a single fact
2.21    Source of a source
2.22    Titles, basic rules
2.23    Titles in foreign languages

Family History Library
2.24    FHL, GSU, LDS & FamilySearch
2.25    FHL basic rule
2.26    FHL film numbers (call numbers)
2.27    FHL film of unpublished records
2.28    FHL item numbers
2.29    Published books filmed by FHL
2.30    Published film used at FHL
2.31    Repositories, citing when using film
2.32    Temple work, etc.    

Online Materials
2.33    Core elements to cite
2.34    Databases vs. images vs. essays
2.35    Multiple offerings at one site
2.36    Punctuation
2.37    Web addresses (URLs)

Organization
2.38    Reference notes vs. source lists

Reference notes
2.39    Choices of style
2.40    Full citations vs. short citations
2.41    Numbering of
2.42    Reference numbers, placement of

Short citations
2.43    Creating
2.44    “Hereinafter cited as”
2.45    Precautions when using

2.46    Source labels
2.47    Source list arrangements
2.48      By author-title
2.49      By collection
2.50      By geographic locale
2.51      By repository
2.52      By source type
2.53      Alphabetizing of
2.54      Numbering of

Stylistic Matters
2.55    Abbreviations
2.56    Abbreviations, standard
2.57    Acronyms & initialisms
2.58    Braces & brackets

Capitalization
2.59    General usage
2.60    Publication titles
2.61    Small caps
2.62    Untitled items
2.63    Colons
2.64    Commas
2.65    Dashes vs. hyphens
2.66    Dates
2.67    Ellipses
2.68    Italics (or underscoring)
2.69    Latinisms
2.70    Parentheses
2.71    Placement of punctuation
2.72    Quotation marks
2.73    Roman numerals
2.74    Semicolons
2.75    Slashes (virgules)
2.76    Titles   

RESOURCE CHAPTERS

Chapters 3 through 14, each, focus on a category of historical resources commonly used by researchers in the United States and most major Western nations:

Chapter 3: Archives & Artifacts

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Basic Issues
3.1    Archival arrangements    
3.2    Archival style guides
3.3    International differences
3.4    Source list entries vs. reference notes
3.5    Unpublished writings

Special Issues
3.6    Archives as lead element
3.7    Author, etc., as lead element
3.8    Collection as lead element
3.9    Document as lead element
3.10    Document no. vs. collection no.
3.11    Exact title vs. generic ID
3.12    Foreign-language titles    

Archived Materials: By Type
3.13    Basic format: artifacts
3.14    Basic format: documents
3.15    Bibles & Bible records
3.16    Digital archive records
3.17    Filmed or fiched manuscripts
3.18    Commercial publications
3.19    Preservation copies
3.20    Photographs, portraits & sketches
3.21    Research reports
3.22    Unpublished manuscripts
3.23    Vertical files

Privately Held Materials
3.24    Basic elements
3.25    Basic format: family artifacts    
3.26    Bible pages, loose
3.27    Bibles with family data
3.28    Charts & family group sheets
3.29    Diaries, journals & authored manuscripts
3.30    Family records, non-Bible
3.31    Frakturs
3.32    Interview tapes & transcripts    
3.33    Jewelry, medals & objets d’art
3.34    Legal documents, unrecorded
3.35    Letters, historic
3.36    Newspaper clippings
3.37    Photographs, portraits & sketches
3.38    Samplers
3.39    School records, heirloom copies    
3.40    Scrapbooks & albums

Personal Files & Knowledge
3.41    Correspondence
3.42    E-mail and instant messages
3.43    Personal knowledge
3.44    Research files & reports
3.45    Traditions

 

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93    Artifact
94    Digital archives
95    Manuscript records
96    Document, emphasis on
97    Series, emphasis on
98    Personal Bible
99    Portrait
100    Research report
101    Unpublished narrative
102    Vertical file

Preservation Film
103    FHL-GSU film
104    In-house film

Private Holdings
105    Artifact
106    Diary or journal, etc.
107    Family Bible records
108    Family chart or group sheet
109    Historic letter
110    Interview tape & transcript
111    Legal document, unrecorded
112    Personal correspondence
113    Personal e-mail
114    Research report
115    Tradition, recorded

Chapter 4: Business & Institutional Records

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Basic Issues
4.1    Private records
4.2    Published records
4.3    Records cataloged as files vs. individual items
4.4    Records cataloged by U.S. vs. international systems

Corporate & Institutional Records
4.5    Basic formats
4.6    Banking records, derivative forms
4.7    Credit reports


Funeral-home records
4.8       Extract supplied by staff
4.9       Personal examination
4.10    Genetic databases: Corporate sponsored
4.11    Hospital & physician records
4.12    Insurance-company records
4.13    Insurance slave-policy registries
4.14    Orphanage records
4.15    Prison records
4.16    Railroad records
4.17    School records
4.18    Store ledgers


Lineage-Society Materials
4.19    Application files
4.20    Compiled records, DAR
4.21    Documentation files 

       
Other Membership Organizations:
4.22    Documents & registers: Archived in-house
4.23    Documents & registrs: Archived off-site
4.23    Archived off-site
4.24    Extract suppied by staff
4.25    Membership card files

Professional Reports
4.26    Basic guidelines
4.27    Genetic testing reports
4.28    Historical research reports
4.29    Legal research reports   

 

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Corporate Records
161    Bound volume
162    Document (loose record)
163    Extract supplied by staff
164    Microfilm
165    Online database
166    Online image

Lineage-society Records
167    Application file
168    Online database

Organizational Records
169    Archived in-house
170    Archived off-site

Professional Reports
171    Genetic testing
172    Historical research: corporate
173    Historical research: online

School Records
174    Administrative material
175    Student transcript

Chapter 5: Cemetery Records

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Basic Issues
5.1    Cultural differences & similarities
5.2    Cemetery as “author”
5.3    Identification of facility
5.4    Identification of individuals
5.5    Identification of record dates

Administrative Records
5.6    Correspondence with extracts
5.7    Files, plats, registers, sexton records
5.8    Orders for interment
5.9    Plot ownership certificates

Markers & Plaques
5.10    Basic elements
5.11    Cenotaphs & memorial plaques
5.12    Grave markers: churchyard
5.13    Grave markers: rural
5.14    Grave markers: rural, GPS
5.15    Grave markers: urban
5.16    Images: markers & plaques

Derivatives
(Copies & Compilations)
5.17    A caution when using
5.18    Card files & vertical files
5.19    Databases
5.20    Photographic works
5.21    Published works    
5.22    Typescripts

 

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Cemetery Office Records
209    Office records: personally used
210    Office records: supplied by staff
211    Online images
212    Preservation film, FHL-GSU

Markers & Memorials (Originals)
213    Grave markers: rural
214    Grave markers: urban
215    Images online
216    Memorial plaques

Derivatives
217    Cemetery abstracts: vertical file
218    Cemetery abstracts: card file
219    Database online

Chapter 6: Census Records

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Basic Issues
6.1    “Ancient” vs. “modern” censuses

Arrangement of elements in
6.2    Reference notes
6.3    Source list (bibliography)

Citing
6.4    Dates of enumeration
6.5    Dwelling, family numbers
6.6    Household heads or others
6.7    Line numbers
6.8    Page, folio, or sheet numbers
6.9    Roll numbers
6.10    Databases vs. images, indexes
6.11    Databases, CD/DVD or online
6.12    Image copies, digital or microfilm
6.13    Indexes, Soundex & Miracode
6.14    Microfilm, National Archives
6.15    Microfilm, enhancements & images
6.16    Shortened citations, essentials

U.S. Censuses
6.17    Background

Population schedules
6.18    Original returns
6.19       1790
6.20       1800
6.21       1810
6.22       1820
6.23       1830
6.24       1840
6.25       1850
6.26       1860
6.27       1870
6.28       1880
6.29       1890
6.30       1900
6.31       1910–1930
6.32    State & local copies


“Nonpopulation” schedules
6.33       Background
6.34       NARA microfilm
6.35       Other filmers

Special population schedules
6.36       1880 Native American
6.37       1890 Union veterans, widows
6.38       1900 Indian population
6.39       1900–Military population
6.40       Native American tribal

Miscellaneous census materials
6.41    1880–1920 Soundex & Miracode
6.42    Enumeration district maps
6.43    Pre-federal censuses
6.44    Religious censuses
6.45    School censuses
6.46    State-sponsored censuses
6.47    Statistical compendiums    
6.48    Statistical data and enumeration instructions, online

International Censuses
6.49    Australia
6.50    Canada
6.51    England
6.52    France
6.53    Germany
6.54    Italy
6.55    Puerto Rico
6.56    Spain
6.57    Sweden
6.58    Wales

 

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Original manuscripts (U.S.)
237    Local copy, federal census
238    National Archives copy

Digital images
239    CD/DVD
240    Online commercial site
241    Online archives (France)
242    Online commercial site (UK, Wales)

Microfilm (U.S.)
243    Native-American tribal census

“Nonpopulation” schedules
244    NARA film
245    FHL-GSU preservation film
246    UNC microfilm publication

Population schedules
247    1790–1840
248    1850–1870
249    1850–1860: slaves
250    1880–1930
251    State-level copies
252    State-sponsored censuses

Derivatives
253    Database, CD/DVD
254    Database, online
255    Soundex & Miracode, microfilm
256    Statistical databas, online

Chapter 7: Church Records

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Basic Issues
7.1    Cultural differences & similarities
7.2    Citation elements
7.3    Citing church as “author”
7.4    Citing dates vs.page numbers
7.5    Citing entry vs. page numbers
7.6    Citing folio vs. page numbers
7.7    Identification of church
7.8    Identification of event
7.9    Identification of individuals
7.10    Identification of record dates
7.11    Source list entries, options for

Original Materials (Basic Formats)
7.12    Record books, archived off-site
7.13    Record books, by exact title
7.14    Record books, by series & volume
7.15    Record books, sectioned
7.16    Record books, foreign language titles
7.17    Records created by diocese

Image Copies
7.18    Online images
7.19    Photocopies
7.20    Preservation film
7.21       Duplicate masters
7.22       FHL cataloging
7.23    Published film

Derivatives: Copies & Compilations
7.24    Certificates                                 
7.25    Certified transcriptions
7.26    Church brochures & newsletters
7.27    Church databases
7.28    Church directories & histories
7.29    Published abstracts, transcriptions
7.30    Recopied registers
7.31    Typescripts of registers

LDS Genealogical Compilations
7.32    Ancestral File
7.33    Family Group Records Collection
7.34    International Genealogical Index
7.35    Pedigree Resource File    

International Examples
7.36    Special issues
7.37    Canada
7.38    England
7.39    France
7.40    Germany
7.41    Mexico
7.42    Norway
7.43    Scotland
7.44    Spain
7.45    Sweden

 

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Church Books
311    Named volume, held by church
312    Named volume, archived off-site
313    Numbered volume, archived off-site

Image Copies
314    Digitized online
315    Microfilm, FHL-GSU, preservation
316    Microfilm, LDS records at FHL
317    Microfilm publication

Derivatives
318    Church-issued certificate
319    Church record book, recopied
320    Church-records database, online

Chapter 8: Local & State Records: Courts & Governance

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Basic Issues
8.1    Core elements
8.2    Local records
8.3    State-level records
8.4    Use of image copies
8.5    Use of record copies
8.6    Using other derivatives

Citation Issues
8.7    Citing books vs. files
8.8    Citing books vs. libers    
8.9    Citing date or court term
8.10    Citing exact titles
8.11    Citing internal crossreferences
8.12    Citing jurisdictions
8.13    Citing key parties in the record
8.14    Citing nature of the record
8.15    Citing page numbers
8.16    Citing the record office

City & County Records
8.17    Background

Basic formats:
8.18    Bound volumes
8.19    Loose papers (case files)
8.20    Records archived off-site
8.21    Bastardy cases (presentments)
8.22    Bonds
8.23    Coroners’ inquests
8.24    County commissioners’ records
8.25    ivorce & separation cases
8.26    Election certificates & returns
8.27    Indigent records
8.28    Insanity hearings
8.29    Jail records
8.30    Jury lists
8.31    Naturalization records, local
8.32    Orphans’ court records
8.33    Pension affidavits
8.34    Poor-farm records
8.35    Probate court records
8.36    Town records

Colony & State Records
8.37    Archival inventories
8.38    Courts: colony level
8.39    Courts: state appellate cases
8.40    Governors’ papers
8.41    Legislative acts
8.42    Legislative petitions & files
8.43    Pension application files

 

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Original Records
(Local)
373    Case files
374    Record books
375    Record books, archived off-site

(State-level)
376    Appeals court record books
377    Legislative petitions & files

Image Copies
378    CD/DVD
379    Microfilm: Archival preservation copy
380    Microfilm: FHL-GSU preservation copy
381    Online

Derivatives
382    Databases, online

Chapter 9: Local & State Records: Licenses, Registrations, Rolls & Vital Records

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Basic Issues
9.1    Background
9.2    Citing key parties in the record
9.3    Citing local vs. state records

Marriage Licenses, Registrations, Etc.
Basic formats
9.4    Bound volumes
9.5    Loose papers (bonds & licenses)
9.6    Online resources
9.7    Records removed to state archives
9.8    Stray marriage records

Military/Pension Rolls & Registrations
(Militia rolls)
9.9      Local
9.10    Local, moved to state archives
9.11    Military rolls: state level
9.12    Pension rolls: local
9.13    Soldiers’ discharge registers: local


(Veteran, widow & orphan rolls)
9.14    Local
9.15    State

Miscellaneous Rolls & Registrations
9.16    Child labor affidavits & licenses
9.17    Free papers, licenses & registrations
9.18    Jury lists
9.19    Licenses, miscellaneous
9.20    Licenses, moved to state archives
9.21    Marks & brands registrations
9.22    Pauper records or rolls
9.23    Voter rolls

Slavery & Servitude Records
9.24    Background
9.25    Indentureships
9.26    Inventories & other lists
9.27    Manumissions (emancipations)
9.28    Mortgages & sales of servants
9.29    Slave passes for travel

Vital Registrations: Births, Deaths, Etc.
9.30    Background
9.31    Certificates vs. registrations
9.32    City certificates & registrations
9.33    County-level certificates
9.34    County-level registrations
9.35    Delayed & amended birth records
9.36    Divorce records
9.37    Negative-search certificates    
9.38    Permits: Burial or transportation
9.39    Published vital records
9.40    Short-form certificates
9.41    State-level certificates
9.42    State-level registers
9.43    Town registers: New England
9.44    Tribal registrations

Vital Registrations: International
9.45    Background
9.46    Birth, marriage, and death registrations
9.47    Canada
9.48    England
9.49    France
9.50    Germany
9.51    Germany
9.52    Ireland
9.53    Israel
9.54    Italy
9.55    Mexico
9.56    Scotland
9.57    Switzerland
9.58    Scandinavia

 

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Local Records
421    File items
422    Files moved to state archives
423    Registers: Named volume
424    Registers: Numbered volume
425    Vital-records certificate
426    Vital-records register
427    Vital records, amended
428    Vital records, delayed

State-level Records
429    Miscellaneous file
430    Vital-records certificate
431    Vital-records register
432    Vital records, amended

Chapter 10: Local & State Records: Property & Probates

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Basic Records
10.1    Background
10.2    Citing key parties in the record
10.3    Citing property & probate records
10.4    Using originals vs. record copies

Deeds & Conveyances
Basic formats
10.5    Original registers
10.6    Image copies: FHO microfilm; FamilySearch
10.7    Deed books, miscellanea in
10.8    Delayed recordings
10.9    Documents online, random items
10.10    Lease & release conveyances
10.11    Mortgages or deeds of trust
10.12    Multiple deeds cited together
10.13    Records archived off-site
10.14    State or colony deeds

Land Grants
10.15    Background
(State or colony grants)
10.16    Bound volumes
10.17    Loose records
10.18    CD/DVD & microfilm images
10.19    Online materials

State land office records for U.S. public lands:
10.20    Original records
10.21    Image copies

Miscellaneous Records
10.22    Building permits
10.23    Estray (ranger) books
10.24    Homestead exemption records
10.25    Marks & brands books5
10.26    Mining records                             
10.27    Notarial books & files
10.28    Plat books
10.29    Tract books, county level

Probates
Basic formats
10.30    Bound volumes
10.31    Loose papers
10.32    Microfilm images
10.33    Online materials
10.34    Bonds
10.35    Orphans’ court records
10.36    Records removed to state archives
10.37    State or colony records

Tax Records
10.38    Basic formats
10.39    Citing a run of tax records
10.40    Quit-rent rolls
10.41    Records removed to state archives
10.42    State or colony tax rolls

International Records
10.43    Basic formats
10.44    Canada: Provincial land records44
10.45    England: Tax rolls, local5
10.46    France: Notarial records
10.47    Ireland: Property, probate records

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Original Records
(Local)
487    Case files
488    Registers
489    Tract book
(State level)
490    Land-grant register
491    Land warrants: loose

Image Copies
492    CD/DVD
493    Microfilm
494    Online

Derivatives
495    Abstracts, online
496    Database, online

Chapter 11: National Government Records

Contents

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Basic Records
U.S. RECORDS
11.1    Citing federal records
11.2    Citing NARA style
11.3    Creating short citations
11.4    Identifying the archives
11.5    Identifying the author or creator

Basic Formats
11.6    Audio & video recordings
11.7    Manuscript (textual) materials
11.8    Microfilm records
11.9    NA-regional holdings
11.10    Online databases
11.11    Online images

Immigration, Passenger & Seamen Records
11.12    Background
11.13    Crew records: Lists for ships
11.14    Crew records: Seamen protection certificates
11.15    Passenger manifests: manuscripts & microfilm
11.16    Passenger manifests: Online derivatives
11.17    Passenger manifests: Online images
11.18    Ship images, online

Indian Affairs Records
11.19    Manuscript materials
11.20    Microfilm publications
11.21    Online derivatives

Land Records
11.22    Background
11.23    Land entry files: Manuscripts
11.24    Land entry files: Microfilm
11.25    Land Office records: CD/DVD databases
11.26    Land Office records: Microfilm
11.27    Land Office records: Online materials
11.28    Special files: Bounty land records
11.29    Special files: Private land claims
11.30    Special files: Survey plat maps
11.31    Special files: Tract books

Military & Pension Records
11.32    Compiled service records
11.33    Draft registrations
11.34    Employees, civilian
11.35    Enlistment papers
11.36    Headstone & burial records
11.37    Imprisonments
11.38    Muster rolls
11.39    Navy & other branches
11.40    Pension files

Miscellaneous U.S. Records
11.41    Captured Confederate records
11.42    Civil War claims: international
11.43    Civil War claims: Southern
11.44    Congressional records
11.45    Court of Claims case files
11.46    Court records, circuit & district
11.47    Freedmen’s Bureau records
11.48    Maps
11.49    Naturalization records
11.50    Passport records
11.51    Patent & trademark records
11.52    Photographic files
11.53    Railroad Retirement Board files
11.54    Slave narratives
11.55    Social Security records
11.56    Tax records
11.57    WPA records

INTERNATIONAL RECORDS
11.58    Australia
11.59    Canada
11.60    England
11.61    France
11.62    Germany
11.63    Ireland: Griffith’s valuations
11.64    Ireland: Land registrations
11.65    Ireland: Tithe applotment survey
11.66    Ireland: Wills & administrations
11.67    Mexico
11.68    Scotland
11.69    Spain
11.70    Wales
11.71    Worldwide: patent databases

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Original Materials (U.S.)
539    Audio recordings: National Archives
    
Manuscripts
540    Library of Congress
541    National Archives
542    National Archives–Regional    
543    Maps: National Archives
544    Photographs: Library of Congress
545    Railroad Retirement Board (NA records offsite)
546    Social Security Administration

Databases
547    CD-ROM publications
548    Online: National Archives (Australia)
549    Online: National Archives (Canada)
550    Online: National Archives (U.K.)
551    Online: National Archives (U.S.)

Image Copies
National Archives microfilm
552    NARA Style citation
553    Publications Style citation
554    Online: Library of Congress
555    Online: National Archives (U.S.)
556    Online: Patent & Trademark Office (U.S.)

Chapter 12: Publications: Books, CDs, Maps, Leaflets & Videos

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Basic Records Basic Issues
12.1    Abbreviations in book citations
12.2    Basic citation forms
12.3    Basic format: books & other
12.4    Ibid. references

Citation Parts
12.5    Author, defined
12.6    Author’s role
12.7       Abstractor or transcriber
12.8       Compiler or author
12.9       Translator or transcriber
12.10    Authors, multiple
12.11    Authors, unidentified
12.12    Authors, unknown
12.13    Pages: Citing pages vs. entries
12.14    Pages: Page numbers, missing
12.15    Publication Details, missing
12.16    Publication places, multiple
12.17    Publishers, identification of
12.18    Publishers, multiple
12.19    Publishers, name changes
12.20    Self-published works
12.21    Titles: Citing full vs. shortened
12.22    Titles: Correcting & clarifying
12.23    Titles: Inconsistencies within
12.24    Titles: Italics vs. quotation marks
12.25    Titles:    Multiple by same author
12.26    Titles:    Punctuation & capitalization
12.27    Titles:    Translated
12.28    Titles:    Titles within a title

Special Publication Types
Anthologies
12.29    Anthology vs.new edition
12.30    Dual credit needed
12.31    Citing author vs. editor, etc.
12.32    Complex punctuation for

Atlases
12.33    Print editions
12.34    Reprints online

Bibles & sacred texts
12.35    Bible passages, quoted
12.36    Bible versions, identified
12.37    Bibles, family heirlooms
12.38    Other sacred texts

Book chapters, forewords, etc.
12.39    Chapters, when to cite
12.40    Foreword by guest writers
12.41    Preface by book’s author

Broadsides, folders & leaflets
12.42    Authors, identification of
12.43    Broadsides: originals, reprints
12.44    Missing data
12.45    Publication number

Conference & institute papers
12.46    Basic differences
12.47    Consolidated (syllabi)
12.48    Individually distributed

Dictionaries & encyclopedias
12.49    Basic issues
12.50    Biographical works
12.51    Dictionary, standard
12.52    Dictionary, specialized
12.53    Encyclopedia, standard
12.54    Encyclopedia, specialized

Directories
12.55    Basic format
12.56    Citing multiple years
12.57    Page numbers missing
12.58    Titles, clarified
12.59    Titles, overlong

E-books
12.60    Basic issue
12.61    E-books: Audio
12.62    E-print books

Edited works
12.63    Basic format
12.64    Citing chapter authors
12.65    Citing editor as author
12.66    Citing editor as well as author

Maps
12.67    Historic maps
12.68    Topographic maps

Multivolume works
12.69    Basic format
12.70    Date ranges
12.71    Different subtitles
12.72    Ongoing volumes
12.73    Single volume split
12.74    Successive authors or editors

Reprints & revisions
12.75    Basic format
12.76    Citing dates
12.77    Facsimile (image) reproductions
12.78    Reprints: Basic issues
12.79    Reprints: Image editions
12.80    Reprints: Multivolumes bound as one
12.81    Reprints: New editions
12.82    Revised editions
12.83    Revisions, posthumous

Series & occasional works
12.84    Basic issues
12.85    “Archives” of various states
12.86    “Occasional” publications

12.87    With multiple authors
12.88    With named parts
12.89    With titles cited as a courtesy

Videos & audio presentations
12.90    Documentaries, etc.
12.91    Lectures
12.92    Vital records, published

 

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Print publications
646    Book: basic format
647    Book: chapter
648    Book: edited
649    Book: multivolume set
650    Book: reprint
651    Book: revised edition
652    Leaflet
653    Map

Electronic publications
654    Audio book
655    CD/DVD book (text)
656    Video
657    Website as “book”

Image copies
658    CD/DVD publication
659    Microfilm, FHL-GSU, preservation
660    Microfilm publication
661    Online publication (Google books)

Chapter 13: Publications: Legal Works & Government Documents

Contents

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Sample of chapter finding aids
           
Basic Issues
13.1    Background


Citation style options
13.2       Legal style & academic style
13.3       Layman’s style

Legal Reference Works
Background
13.4    Case law vs. statutory law
13.5    Reporters & digests
13.6    Statutory law
13.7    Titles of laws

Codes, Statutes & Slip Laws
(Codes)
13.8    Federal codes
13.9    Municipal codes
13.10    State codes

(Session laws, legislative acts, statutes)
13.11    Session laws vs. codes
13.12    Session laws: federal
13.13    Session laws: state
13.14    Statutes: international & regnal

(Slip laws)
13.15    Slip laws vs. session laws
13.16    Slip laws: federal
13.17    Slip laws: state

Digests & reporters
13.18    Federal case reporters
13.19    Federal digests
13.20    State-level case reporters
13.21    State-level digests
13.22    Sundry other reference works

Printed Government Documents
Basic issues
13.23    Definition
13.24    Departments ... as “author”
13.25    International publications

U.S. Serial Set
13.26    Background
13.27    1789–1838
13.28    1817 to present
13.29    Serial Set Index

(American State Papers)
13.30    Authorized editions
13.31    Duff Greene edition
13.32    Gales & Seaton edition
13.33    Gales, reprint edition
13.34    New American State Papers

(Congressional documents)
13.35    Annals of Congress
13.36    Annals, identifying the year
13.37    Annals, identifying speakers
13.38    House & Senate documents
13.39    House & Senate journals
13.40    Other Serial Set models

(Departmental & agency reports)
13.41    Executive Branch reports

National Archives (U.S.) finding aids
13.42    Background
13.43    Catalogs & guides
13.44    Descriptive pamphlets
13.45    General information leaflets
13.46    Inventories
13.47    Nonpublic manuscripts
13.48    Reference information papers & special lists
    
Work Projects Administration
13.49    Multiple formats
13.50    Original editions
13.51    Reprints & revisions

Other Governmental Publications
13.52    State-level publications
13.53    International publications

 

 

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727    Book: Basic Format

Legal Reference Works
(Case reporters)
728    Series named for editor
729    Standardized series

(Codes & statutes, online)
730    State database
731    U.S. Code
732    Slip laws: federal
733    Statutes: federal
734    Statutes: state

Printed Government Documents
(Congressional records)
735    Citing volume from title page
736    Traditional academic style
737    Online images

National Archives (U.S.) guides
738    Descriptive pamphlet, online
739    Preliminary inventory, microfilmed

Chapter 14: Publications: Periodicals, Broadcasts & Web Miscellanea

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Basic Records
14.1    Distinctions between types

Citation Parts
14.2    Article title vs. periodical title
14.3    Author: anyonymous
14.4    Author: pseudonymous
14.5    Author’s credentials, degrees, and honorifics
14.6    Creator’s role
14.7    Dates, styles for
14.8    Dates vs. volume & issue numbers
14.9    Dates vs. volume: variances by type
14.10    Edition, page, column references
14.11    Place of publication
14.12    Publisher
14.13    Punctuation
14.14    Titles, shortened
14.15    Volume & issue numbers

SPECIFIC EXAMPLES
Periodicals
14.16    Basic format: journal articles
14.17    Journal articles: serialized
14.18    Journal reviews    
14.19    Journal review essays
14.20    Magazine articles
14.21    Newsletter articles
14.22    Newspaper articles

Radio & television broadcasts
14.23    Broadcast transcripts
14.24    Sound clips

Web-based miscellanea
14.25    Blogs
14.26    Chats, archived transcripts
14.27    Discussion forums & lists
14.28    E-journals & e-magazines
14.29    E-newsletters
14.30    Podcasts

 

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Periodicals
(Journal articles)
779    Print editions
780    Online archives of print journals
781    Online journals

(Magazine articles)
782    Print editions
783    Online reprints, random items

(Newsletter articles)
784    Print editions

(Newspaper articles)
785    Print editions
786    Online archives

Broadcasts & Web Miscellanea
787    Blogs
788    Discussion forums & lists
789    Podcasts
790    Radio & television clips

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13.0  Samples of chapter-level finding aids
         List of QuickCheck Models           
         List of Guidelines & Examples   

Chapter 1:
Fundamentals of Evidence Analysis

Basic Issues
1.1    Analysis & mindset            
1.2    Completeness of research
1.3    Conclusions: hypothesis, theory & proof
 

Chapter 2:
Fundamentals of Citation

2.10    Symbols & terms
Common Practices for Citing
2.11    Derivatives & imaged sources
2.12    Indexes & finding aids
2.21    Source of a source
Online Materials
2.33    Core elements to cite
2.34    Databases vs. images vs. essays
2.35    Multiple offerings at one site
Organization
2.38    Reference notes vs. source lists
Reference notes
2.39    Choices of style
Source list arrangements
2.48      By author-title
2.49      By collection
2.50      By geographic locale
 

Chapter 3:
Archives & Artifacts

Basic Issues
3.1    Archival arrangements
Archived Materials: By Type
3.17    Filmed or fiched manuscripts
3.18    Commercial publications
Privately Held Materials
3.32    Interview tapes & transcripts    
 

Chapter 4:
Business & Institutional Records

Basic Issues
4.1    Private records
4.2    Published records
4.3    Records cataloged as files vs. individual items
4.4    Records cataloged by U.S. vs. international systems

Chapter 6:
Census Records

Citing
6.7    Line numbers
6.8    Page, folio, or sheet numbers
U.S. Censuses: Population schedules
6.31    Federal   1910–1930
6.32    State & local copies
 

Chapter 7:
Church Records

Original Materials (Basic Formats)
7.12    Record books, archived off-site
7.13    Record books, by exact title
7.16    Record books, foreign language
Derivatives: Copies & Compilations
7.24    Certificates                                 
 

Chapter 8:
Local & State Records: Courts & Governance

Basic Issues
8.1    Core elements
City & County Records
8.17    Background
Basic formats:
8.18    Bound volumes
8.19    Loose papers (case files)
Colony & State Records
8.38    Courts: colony level
8.39    Courts: state appellate cases
 

Chapter 9:
Local & State Records:
Licenses, Registrations, Rolls & Vital Records

Slavery & Servitude Records
9.28    Mortgages & sales of servants
9.29    Slave passes for travel
Vital Registrations: Births, Deaths, Etc.
9.30    Background
 

Chapter 10:
Local & State Records: Property & Probates

Basic Records
10.4    Using originals vs. record copies
Deeds & Conveyances
Basic formats
10.5    Original registers
Miscellaneous Records
10.27    Notarial books & files
Tax Records
10.40    Quit-rent rolls
10.41    Records removed to state archives
10.42    State or colony tax rolls
 

Chapter 11:
National Government Records

Basic Records
U.S. RECORDS
11.1    Citing federal records
 

Chapter 12:
Publications: Books, CDs, Maps, Leaflets & Videos

Multivolume works
12.71    Different subtitles
12.72    Ongoing volumes
12.73    Single volume split

Series & occasional works
12.85    “Archives” of various states

12.86    “Occasional” publications
 

Chapter 13:
Publications: Legal Works & Government Documents

Legal Reference Works
Background
13.4    Case law vs. statutory law
13.5    Reporters & digests
13.6    Statutory law
13.7    Titles of laws
(Session laws, legislative acts, statutes)
13.13    Session laws: state
13.14    Statutes: international & regnal
(Slip laws)
13.15    Slip laws vs. session laws
13.16    Slip laws: federal
National Archives (U.S.) finding aids
13.47    Nonpublic manuscripts
13.48    Reference information papers & special lists

 

Chapter 14:
Publications: Periodicals, Broadcasts & Web Miscellanea

Citation Parts
14.8    Dates vs. volume & issue numbers
14.9    Dates vs. volume: variances by type
14.10    Edition, page, column references
14.11    Place of publication
Radio & television broadcasts
14.24    Sound clips
Web-based miscellanea
14.25    Blogs