Record Usage and Interpretation

Does converting "born digital" documents affect their evidentiary value?

Dear Editor;

As you are no doubt aware, more and more "original" documents (especially email) have never been anything but digital. While it is often recommended or required that such "born digital" documents be stored as received, they can become unreadable over time due to software changes or need to be converted into another format for archiving. Personally; I would like to extract my emails from the email program's database and store them in a way that can be consulted in the longer term.

Civil Registration Images at

I've come across some new records that I need to cite properly and want to be sure I have this correct. The images of the original registers are available online on The challenge I am facing is that there are two sets of stamped number on the pages (image attached), and I cannot figure out what these numbers represent. The website is not very user friendly (no way to easily view pages before and after the desired image).

I included the direct URL as these records are pretty tricky to find. This is what I have come up with:

Help with an Indenture Please

A number of years ago I found the following indenture in a deed book in Hardin County, Kentucky. I thought I understood what was going on that is until this past week when some else used this deed as a reference.

My understanding of the following indenture is that John Uptegrove used a horse as collateral for a loan from Joseph Adams.

The other person interpreted the indenture as John Uptegrove sold a horse to Joseph Adams.

Note: I did correct a couple of spelling errors in this transcription. The original pages are attached in a pdf.

Examples and reasoning for original and derivative sources

I'm still having trouble grasping the concepts behind original and derivative sources and primary and secondary information. Reading the explanations and the usual examples, they make sense to me, but when I'm actually looking at what I have in front of me, I doubt I'm doing anything right. There's also different usage of these terms, even within the context of genealogy teaching resources, that muddies the waters for me.

New York guardianship records

I am researching the parentage of Almond McHenry (b. 1821), Allegany, New York. In the 1831 will of Sara Mulhullon, Almond McHenry her grandson, is listed first in a list of Henry McHenry's children. Also listed were the two other grandchildren, listed as children of Danial McHenry. All of these grandchildren inherited a portion of Sara's estate. Danial and Henry McHenry inherited nothing. In 1833 Danial McHenry was appointed guardian of his two children. The guardianship included information about real property and a bond was required for both children's guardianship.

Transcribing a Special Character

I am trying to decipher a probated will from a Richmond County, GA from 1824. In transcribing the information, I have happened on the use of a character with which I am not familiar. The character has been added to several words in the document, usually as a separate character after the word and occasionally as an additional character continuing a word. The usage does not seem to follow in particular pattern that I can discern. It follows the word “and” several times, but also follows “support”, “at”, “managed”, “kind” and many others.