How to cite a newspaper known by various names at different times?

Hello, EE,

I need to cite a newspaper imaged at Newspapers and believe I know how to do that except for one problem. When I access the image for the first page of each of the several issues I’m citing, the image itself shows the newspaper’s name to be the Davenport Democrat. However the web site’s “frame” at the upper left corner of the image calls it the Morning Democrat, [See, by way of example, .]

When I searched for the Davenport Democrat and then for the Morning Democrat on the web site’s “Papers” tab, both searches returned results showing the Morning Democrat (identified in the thumbnail as “Also known as: Daily Davenport Democrat, etc.) but not the Davenport Democrat. The web site’s history of the newspaper at states that it was known by seven different names over the course of its publication from 1817 to 1897:

  • Daily Davenport Democrat
  • Daily Democrat and News
  • Daily Iowa State Democrat
  • Daily State Democrat
  • Davenport Democrat
  • The Democrat-Gazette
  • Morning Democrat-Gazette

Of those, the Davenport Democrat matches the name shown on the image itself, but the Morning Democrat doesn’t match any of the above names exactly. My inclination is to cite the newspaper by the name shown on the image itself, the Davenport Democrat, but I’m wondering if I should follow the citation with a sentence stating that it was known by various names, including the Morning Democrat.

Could you please tell me if you agree that I should cite the newspaper as the Davenport Democrat and whether you think it’s necessary or desirable to mention that it was also known as the Morning Democrat?

Thanks very much!


Submitted byEEon Thu, 06/13/2024 - 09:16

Hello, F.T.C., the basic rule for all citations is that we cite what we use. Newspapers change names across time. Companies change names across time. Authors change names across time. Periodicals change names across time. Places change names across time. We cite each according to how it appears on the source we're using. 

If you feel it would be helpful to add a comment to your working notes, to say that it has gone by various other names, you're free to do that. In our working notes, we may add anything we feel helpful.