The Other (Non-copyright) Issue with Online Photographs that Nobody Talks About

We’re studying Benjamin S. Anybody. We find his photograph online. Well, we find a photograph that is said to be him. What do we do now?

A Church Book Is a Church Book Is a Church Book

Across centuries of record-keeping, different denominations have created different types of records. ... Regardless of the country in which you work, your citations to church books will have essentially the same elements. ...

What Does a Citation Prove?

15 March 2015
When we extract a “fact” from a source and we cite that source in our research notes, we feel so virtuous, don’t we? Our inner self reaches out and pats us on the back. “Atta girl! Way to go! Keep up this good stuff!” Truth it, citing sources doesn’t mean ...

When Do I Use Parentheses in a Citation? (Psst! Not This Way!)

9 March 2015
In citations to published works, parentheses are used to set off "publication data." When citing a magazine or journal article ...

The Source of the Source, of Course, of Course

6 March 2015
EE user Simon (aka “Nomis”) poses a question that puzzles many researchers. When we cite a source that cites its own source, we introduce that second layer of our citation with the word "citing." But, Simon asks, what exactly should come after that? What details need to be included? ...


1 January 2015
It's a new year. You've made your resolutions, right? Of course, No. 1 is, "I shall—from this day forward and forevermore—provide complete and accurate documentation for all my research." Wonderful! But what, exactly, does this call for? ...

Record Citation vs. Record Identification

27 October 2014
Newer researchers think of “source identification” in terms of How do I cite this? The underlying issue, however, is not how to cite. It is, instead, how to ...

Citations: 1-2-3 Easy

12 September 2014
Every kind of citation follows a basic pattern: 1-2-3. When we have something to identify, we identify (1) the creator, (2) the item, then (3) access information. If it's a ...

Periods. Create. A. Full. Stop.

31 August 2014
What does a period say to you when you see one? By common agreement in the language world, a period usually means: Stop. The end. Finis. When we're writing, it means ...

Citing Card Files & Vertical Files

25 July 2014
Many libraries maintain card files and vertical files on a variety of subjects—particularly local libraries. These compiled works can be cited in much the same manner as manuscript materials. We may have ...